Wednesday, 24 Oct 2018

The Golden Age of Edwardian Britain 1901–1914

Edwardian era. British history

It is time to look at a period in Britain’s history which may seem eerily

familiar to modern readers. It was a time when a Home Secretary stood

up in the House of Commons and admitted that there had, in the last

twelve months, been a net migration to this country of 600,000 people. Most

of these newcomers were seeking refuge from supposed persecution, who

we would today call ‘asylum seekers’. He also discussed the possibility that

some people were coming to this country for the sole purpose of seeking

medical treatment, which today we know as ‘health tourism’, and went on to

talk of ‘people smugglers’. It was a time when another MP complained that

at some schools in his constituency, ‘Few English pupils are to be found’. He

claimed that there was a housing crisis, caused by immigration. The debates

on this subject in Parliament were in response to a deep unease felt by ordinary

people about mass immigration. There was particular concern that the

influx of unskilled workers from Eastern Europe was driving down wages

and making it harder for British workers to find jobs. A far-right group

called the British Brotherhood was founded. Their slogan was, ‘Britain for

the British’.

The Golden Age of Edwardian Britain 1901–1914 - photo 1
Edwardian architecture in Britain
The Golden Age of Edwardian Britain 1901–1914 - photo 2
Edwardian architecture in Britain

Edwardian architecture in Britain

The crisis in Britain over immigration at that time, which was running at levels

which dwarf anything seen today, was compounded by the fear of separate

societies developing, communities where many people did not even speak

English. It was thought that not only were all these foreigners taking jobs

away from the British, but that fanatical terrorists were being sheltered

within such communities and that bombings and shootings were taking

place as a direct consequence of allowing so many foreigners, with ideas so

different from those traditionally held in Britain, to flood the country. As if

that were not enough, tensions within society caused a series of strikes and

outbreaks of ferocious rioting, one hot summer, so widespread and violent

that the police were unable to cope. These problems were all being exacerbated

by a revolution in information technology, which mean that people

were learning far more rapidly than ever before about what was going on in

other parts of the country.

 

All this sounds uncannily like the kind of problems with which we are currently

wrestling and it is hard to believe that we are talking of the Edwardian

Era, over a hundred years ago. Mass immigration, terrorism, rioting, political

crises, industrial unrest, all fuelled and encouraged by an information

revolution; these are the themes at which we shall be looking in this chapter.

The idea that there once was a golden age, when everything was a lot better

than it is today, has been popular for at thousands of years. Sometimes,

the supposed golden age is thought to have been centuries ago. We saw an

example of this in Chapter 1 with the Victorian interest in the Medieval and

Gothic. For some artists and poets at that time, the fourteenth century was

manifestly a better era than their own. There has in this country, for over a

century now, been an enduring belief in one particular golden age which is

still thought by many people to have been a special time; a brief era when

everything was going well, at least for Britain and the British. This is the

Edwardian period, which is usually considered to have lasted from Queen

Victoria’s death in 1901 to the outbreak of the First World War in the summer

of 1914. Calling these years the ‘Edwardian’ period is something of a

misnomer of course, for Edward VII, after whom the era was named, actually

died in 1910. Nevertheless, most historians consider that 1914 marks the

end of the Edwardian Era of Britain.

The Golden Age of Edwardian Britain 1901–1914 - photo 3
Queen Victoria

Queen Victoria of Great Britain

The expression ‘Victorian’ can have negative connotations and may even

be used in a pejorative sense as being synonymous with ‘Dickensian’. When

we talk of ‘Victorian’ working conditions, we are calling to mind Oliver Twist

and workhouses. ‘Edwardian’, on the other hand, has quite another meaning;

the word is redolent of opulence, wealth and elegance. Those thirteen years

of the Edwardian period of Britain are often thought to have been the high-water mark

of empire, a time when Britain’s influence upon the world was at its zenith

and the country was enjoying the fruits of the mightiest empire which the

world had ever seen, one which covered a quarter of the earth’s land surface

and included a fifth of the world’s population. The Boer War had just ended

and Britain was to be at peace for the whole of those thirteen years. It was

a time of new technology and increasing standards of living. Prosperity at

home and power abroad are what the Edwardians are known for. It was the

age of Elgar and Kipling, a time of certainty about Britain and its values. In

later years, it would become customary to speak wistfully of the years ‘before

the war’ when everything had been so much better, in so many ways.

 

It was not until after the First World War, however, that the early years

of the twentieth century began to be viewed with such nostalgia. It was then

that a term was coined for the late Victorian and Edwardian period in Western

Europe. The expression chosen to define this period was ‘La Belle Epoque’,

which translates roughly as ‘the beautiful era’. The poet Wordsworth wrote

that ‘distance lends enchantment to the view’ and nowhere is the truth of

this sentiment better illustrated than in the view of Edwardian Britain; which

became increasingly enchanting the further the distance in time which separated

it from observers grew. Within twenty years of the end of that epoch,

the false view of the pre-war years had become firmly established and a new

golden age existed as the focus for the nostalgia of those who really ought to

have known better.

 

Illustration shows the kind of visual image which the word ‘Edwardian’

evokes for many of us. It shows grandly-dressed ladies at Ascot in 1905.

Sunny days such as this, with people dressed up for Henley or Ascot sum up

Edwardian Britain – a never-ending summer, where everything is right in

the world and Britain enjoys its rightful place in the world. No more pressing

concern than which lacy parasol to choose that day. The reality though,

could hardly be more different.

The Golden Age of Edwardian Britain 1901–1914 - photo 5

The Golden Age of Edwardian Britain 1901–1914 - photo 7

Edwardian Britain fashion

In recent years, the Western World has gone through what is sometimes

referred to as the ‘Digital Revolution’. The after-effects of this technological

upheaval are still being felt and it has not yet ended. Mechanical household

gadgets with which we have been familiar for many decades have all been

swept away: the typewriters and cameras, telephones and radios, record

players and tape recorders, all have been consigned to the dustbin of history.

This rapid process has changed British society in many ways and had a dramatic

affect in many ways upon how we run our lives. Much the same thing

was happening in Edwardian Britain, but this revolution was an analogue,

rather than a digital, one. It added to the feeling among ordinary people that

the world was changing more rapidly than ever before and that nobody quite

knew what would happen next.

 

Britain has changed greatly in the last twenty years or so for other reasons,

beside the introduction of amazing new ways of communicating with

other people and handling information. Mass immigration has altered the

face of the larger cities irrevocably and the spectre of terrorism has, at the

same time, grown to be an ever-present fear. These two things, immigration

and terrorism, are often connected in people’s minds, because most of the

terrorism which occurs in Britain seems to be carried out by people whose

origins lie outside the country. This too would have been an idea familiar to

the Edwardians. We begin our survey of the Edwardian ‘golden age’ of Britain by looking

at the way in which the people of that time saw their country changing

and the uneasiness which this occasioned in some citizens.

In twenty-first century Britain, anxieties about immigration and terrorism

often centre around Muslims. It is feared that many of them owe their

first allegiance not to Britain, but to an unfamiliar religion which causes

them to think and act in very different ways from most British people.

Combined with this is a supposed propensity among some Muslims for violence

and terrorism. However irrational these feelings might be; they are

certainly held by a large section of the population. A century earlier, the

fear was of Eastern Europeans, especially Jews, and the way in which they

flooded the country and occupied swathes of what we now refer to as the

‘inner cities’. They spoke other languages, either followed a strange religion

or were atheists, and ate unfamiliar foods. This led to a tendency to form

parallel societies and embrace dangerous political ideologies; some of which

led to violence. They certainly didn’t subscribe to what we now call ‘British

Values’.

The Golden Age of Edwardian Britain 1901–1914 - photo 8

The Golden Age of Edwardian Britain 1901–1914 - photo 9

Weddings in Edwardian Britain

Perhaps one or two specific instances of the way in which the events in

Edwardian society and the fears that such things generated precisely mirror

what is going on in Britain today will make this easier to understand. In 2005,

an armed robbery in Bradford was bungled disastrously and a police officer,

Sharon Beshenivsky, was shot dead. The crime was carried out by asylum

seekers and some people drew conclusions from this about the wisdom of

allowing large numbers of such people to enter the country and remain here

as long as they pleased. That the killer was a Muslim did not help matters.

There was a general feeling that this was a uniquely horrible crime which

was symptomatic of modern society. Surely, this kind of thing didn’t used to

happen in the old days?

 

On Saturday, 23 January 1909, a crime almost identical to the murder of

Sharon Beshenivsky took place in the north London suburb of Tottenham.

Tottenham is today known as an area with many ethnic minorities, not a few

of whom are asylum seekers. The situation was no different a century ago,

except that at that time, most of the asylum-seekers were from Poland and

Russia and many of them were Jews. In fact before the First World War, one

part of Tottenham was known as ‘Little Russia’, due to the large number of

Russians who had settled there. The area had a number of synagogues.

On that Saturday morning in 1909, Schnurmann’s rubber factory in

Chesnut Road, just off the high road, was just about to stop work for the

weekend. Saturday was payday and a car arrived from a nearby bank with

the wages. No sooner had the clerk got out of the car, than two men rushed

up, knocked him down and made off with the bag containing £80. Some

of the workers from the factory, angry at the prospect of being deprived of

their money, gave chase. At the corner of the street, the two robbers turned

and opened fire with automatic pistols, wounding one man and sending the

others diving for cover.

The Golden Age of Edwardian Britain 1901–1914 - photo 10
The Golden Age of Edwardian Britain

The Golden Age of Edwardian Britain 1901–1914 - photo 11

The Golden Age of Edwardian Britain

The sound of gunfire brought three police officers running from nearby

Tottenham Police Station. The gunmen opened fire at them and the three

men sheltered behind a wall. At this point, a ten-year-old boy called Ralph

Joscelyn ran out of his house to see what was going on. He was promptly

shot dead. The bandits hoped to escape across the open country which surrounded

Tottenham at that time and they made off across the fields towards

Walthamstow. Some of the policemen from the police station followed them,

while others broke out the revolvers which were kept there. Incredibly, there

were also in the armoury cutlasses, which were at one time standard issue

to the police in Britain. These too were handed out and some officers then

set off on bicycles, waving swords. It might have been comic if not for the

deadly serious threat faced by both the police and civilians caught up in the

affair.

 

The first police officer to catch up with the men who had carried out the

wages snatch was PC William Tyler. He was shot dead. There then followed

a long chase, in which the bandits exchanged shots with not only the pursuing

police, but also several farmers armed with shotguns. At one point, a

tram was hijacked and then, when they could flee no more, the two men shot

themselves.

 

The men who had carried out the robbery which went so disastrously

wrong were both Eastern European asylum-seekers, Jewish anarchists who

had been allowed to settle in Britain. Their names were Paul Hefeld and

Jacob Lepidus. They had been trying to raise funds to finance revolutionary

activity in their home countries on the Baltic Sea, which were at that

time part of the Russian Empire. The funerals of PC Tyler and little Ralph

Joscelyn were held together on the same day and some 50,000 people lined

the route of the funeral corteges. There was already a lot of anti-Semitism

in the country and the fact that both the killers were Jewish refugees exacerbated

this. That they were also anarchists did not help either.

The Golden Age of Edwardian Britain 1901–1914 - photo 12
The Golden Age of Edwardian Britain

The Golden Age of Edwardian Britain. Fashion

Today, there is a general lack of understanding in Britain of an ideology

which causes men to sacrifice their lives in suicide bombings. We view such

actions as quite mad. Since the people who carry out these crimes are invariably

Muslims, there is an association in the minds of many ordinary British

people with the idea of Islam and ruthless murders carried out without any

regard for the lives of the perpetrators. Much the same was thought about

Jews and anarchism in the early part of the twentieth century. Bombings,

shootings and assassinations were being carried out across Europe by men

who seemingly did not care if they sacrificed their own lives in the process.

As far as could be understood, these dangerous fanatics were opposed to our

very way of life and once settled in Britain would not hesitate to carry on

with their conspiracies and terrorist campaigns. The resonance between this

situation and the state of affairs in modern Britain is strong.

The popular feeling after what became known as the ‘Tottenham Outrage’

was that these murderous terrorists had been sheltered in a community

which had been given refuge in the country, and had allowed these men to

live among them. It was not precisely a rational viewpoint, but we see similar

sentiments after crimes by asylum-seekers in Britain today.

The year after the Tottenham Outrage, there was an even more brutal

crime involving the murder of police officers by Jewish anarchists. On the

night of 16 December 1910, a group of foreign terrorists living in the East

End of London were disturbed by the police while in the process of burgling

a jeweller’s shop. The unarmed officers were gunned down, two sergeants

and a constable being killed. There had been nothing like this before

in Britain and three police officers would not be killed simultaneously in this

way again until the Shepherds Bush murders in 1966.

The Golden Age of Edwardian Britain 1901–1914 - photo 13
London in Edwardian period of British history
The Golden Age of Edwardian Britain 1901–1914 - photo 14
London in Edwardian period of British history

London in Edwardian period of British history

The aftermath of what became known, due to the location of the crime,

as the Houndsditch Murders became headline news across the world.

Two weeks after the killing of the police officers, a tip-off led to a house in

London’s East End, where the killers were said to be hiding out. When the

police knocked on the door of the nondescript house in Stepney, they were

met by a hail of gunfire and swiftly retreated. The house, 100 Sidney Street,

was surrounded by the police and the famous Siege of Sidney Street had

begun.

 

The only firearms to which the police had access, shotguns and old

revolvers, were hopelessly inadequate for an operation of this sort. The men

in the upper stories of the house in Sidney Street were armed with modern

semi-automatic pistols, German Mausers whose magazines meant that they

were able to maintain a constant and withering fire against the men surrounding

their hideout. The police were forced to move back to the end of

the street and found themselves quite at a loss to know how to proceed.

The Home Secretary at the time was Winston Churchill and, as a former

soldier, he naturally favoured a military solution. Churchill was in the bath

when news was relayed to him of the gun battle which was raging in East

London. He dressed and immediately authorized the use of troops to tackle

this unprecedented situation. Soldiers of the Scots Guards, stationed at the

Tower of London, were sent for. The Home Secretary made the most injudicious

decision to go to Sidney Street and direct operations himself, something

for which he was later ridiculed in the House of Commons. When he

got to the scene, Churchill was greeted by the crowds gathered there with

catcalls and cries of ‘Who let them in?’, a reference to the widespread belief

that there was unchecked immigration into Britain and that this gun battle

was a natural consequence of what we now call ‘porous borders‘.

 

The soldiers who arrived to aid the police soon set up positions and began

exchanging fire with the cornered terrorists. In a decided case of overkill,

Churchill had also arranged for a troop of horse artillery to come to Stepney,

the intention being to shell the street in order to subdue the two or three

desperate criminals who were trapped in one house. In the event, field guns

were not needed, because the house caught fire and the charred corpses of

two men were found in the ruins.

 

It is in the sequel to this famous incident that the similarities with our

own time become very obvious. Today, news of even the most trifling incident

will be spread across the country, indeed the world, quite literally at

the speed of light. Electronic media mean that images from the scene of a

riot or terrorist attack begin circulating almost immediately. This marvel is

achieved by the use of digital technology; something which has had the most

profound effect on how we see and interpret current affairs. The Edwardian

period was on the cusp of another sort of information revolution, one which

had an equally great impact on society at that time.

The Golden Age of Edwardian Britain 1901–1914 - photo 15

Beautiful women of Edwardian Britain

Digital technology works by reducing information about photographs,

films, text, music and the spoken word to a string of binary digits, in which

form it may readily be transmitted along telephone lines or on radio waves

to a destination anywhere in the world. Once there, it is reassembled into a

coherent form which we understand. The predecessor to digital information

was analogue technology, whereby an image or piece of text is simply copied

and the copy sent, just as it is, to somewhere else. A traditional photograph

is a representation, or analogue, of the actual scene at which the camera lens

has been pointed.

 

In the nineteenth century, during the reign of Queen Victoria of Britain, the creation

and distribution of photographs and printed material was slow, laborious

and expensive; it hardly affected ordinary people. Newspapers, the

commonest means of presenting information about current affairs, were too

pricy for the working man or woman to think of buying and they seldom

contained photographs. A riot or terrorist bombing in Manchester during

the 1860s would only slowly, over a period of weeks, become known to the

man in the street and then almost invariably by word of mouth, rather than

by reading about it or seeing pictures taken at the scene. This meant of

course that in Victorian Britain, accurate and up-to-date information was

not a common commodity. All this was to change in the decade or so following

Queen Victoria’s of Britain death in 1901.

 

The rise of photographic film made from celluloid rather than glass

plates and the advent of cheap newspapers changed all this during the years

before the First World War. The arrival too of moving pictures made a huge

difference to the way that working people in Britain thought about their

way of life and the social order. The ha’penny newspapers such as the Daily

Mail, the Sketch and the Daily Mirror became tremendously popular and

each copy was passed around in public houses and so on. For the first time

in British history, the ordinary men and women of the country could read

about, look at photographs of and even see moving images of events which

they would never be likely to see in real life. For many, this was a revelation

with far-reaching implications. The ‘Siege of Sidney Street’, for example,

was filmed and the images shown at thousands of music halls and theatres

across the whole of Britain.

The Golden Age of Edwardian Britain 1901–1914 - photo 16
Siege of Sidney Street

Siege of Sidney Street. History of Britain 

By 1912 there were an estimated 4,000 cinemas in Britain and almost all

of them showed newsreel films as well as the main programme. In music

halls too, a very important part of working-class culture at that time, the programme

often ended with a newsreel produced by the Biograph company,

for instance. The majority of working people in the country would therefore

have seen Pathé newsreels of things such as the affair at Sidney Street and

other dramatic incidents like the suffragette Emily Davison throwing herself

under the horses at the 1913 Derby.

 

It was not of course only dramatic events such as terrorist attacks or spectacular

suicides which were being read about in the new, cheap newspapers or

watched in newsreels by working people. The lives of the wealthy and famous

were also featured, events such as Henley Regatta, the well-to-do at Ascot,

the Oxford and Cambridge boat race, Royal visits and many other news items

which showed the enormous gulf which existed between the rich and poor

of Britain. This could not but have the effect of drawing the attention of

working-class people at the music hall to the unbelievably ostentatious way of

life enjoyed by those above them on the social scale. These constant reminders

of their lowly status in the established order of things was manifested in the

rise of support for socialism and the trade union movement. The increased

support for trade union militancy, fuelled by a new awareness of, and anger

about, the inequalities in Edwardian society led to what became known as the

‘Great Unrest’. This was a series of strikes and demonstrations which culminated

in the most ferocious and deadly rioting ever seen in mainland Britain.

We tend all too often to take our view of Edwardian Britain from fiction,

rather than fact. Television programmes such as Upstairs, Downstairs

or Downton Abbey are treated as factual accounts of this period of history.

 

Sometimes, we have a vague idea about Edwardian London from watching

films like Mary Poppins, with the visually attractive and stable life of the

upper middle classes shown as the norm. Even the lives of working men such

as Bert the chimney sweep in Mary Poppins are seen as being one long round

of gaiety and larks. The reality was very different. The years leading up to

the outbreak of war in 1914 were times of great hardship for many workers.

There was rising unemployment, with no social security benefits to cushion

the impact. Men, women and children were literally starving to death. It was

to stave off the rising tide of anger from the ordinary population that the

Liberal government of the time instituted measure such as Old Age Pensions

and embarked upon a scheme aimed at redistributing the nation’s wealth.

The effect upon somebody whose neighbours were literally dying of hunger

of seeing a newsreel of grand folk at the Henley Regatta can only be imagined!

Between 1910 and 1912, prices of goods in the shops, as well as rents,

rose inexorably. At the same time, wages fell in real terms. This produced

a feeling of despair, the practical expression of which was a wave of strikes

for increases in pay which grew to a crescendo in 1911. Dockers and railway

workers were among those involved in these industrial disputes, which

meant that imported food was left rotting by the dockside and that which did

get through the docks could not be transported to other parts of the country.

These labour troubles rumbled on until the summer and then exploded into

violence. Matters were not helped by the weather that year.

The Golden Age of Edwardian Britain 1901–1914 - photo 17
Mary Poppins

Mary Poppins – favorite book of Britain

It is a matter of common observation that rioting and disorder tends to be

more frequent in hot, sunny weather than when it is cold, rainy and overcast.

The summer of 1911 was gloriously sunny from May until September. In

July a temperature of 96.8 degrees Fahrenheit was recorded at Ascot and that

month still holds the record for the amount of sunshine seen in one month

in this country, a total of 384 hours at the south coast resort of Worthing.

The heat however, welcome as it was for holidaymakers, had a bad effect

upon the crowds of angry and discontented workers who were striking that

summer. The industrial areas of Britain were a tinder box.

 

The hot weather coincided with a series of major strikes. In May in Britain, dock

workers went on strike for better working conditions and an increase in wages.

By August, 20,000 dockers had walked out in London and in Liverpool the

docks had been brought to a complete standstill. Some carters also came out

on strike, which meant that raw materials could not be transported to and

from the docks. There was mass picketing and violent scenes in London,

with lorries and buses overturned by angry crowds of strikers. On 11 August,

the government made the fateful decision to use troops to restore order and

ensure that supplies began moving again. The carters ended their strike that

day, but now it was the turn of the railwaymen to take industrial action.

A century ago, the railways were the arteries of Britain. They were the only

the way of getting from one end of the country to the other and no government

could allow its trade and industry to be paralysed by a union in this way.

Troops were sent into London and Liverpool to protect the railway lines from

sabotage and ensure that those who wished to continue driving trains were

not prevented from doing so by intimidation from union pickets. Over 12,000

soldiers were quartered in London and Hyde Park was turned into a tented

army camp. Troops with fixed bayonets guarded the main railway stations and

patrolled the lines. In Britain in Liverpool, 3,500 soldiers were brought in to prevent

disorder, but their presence in the city had precisely the opposite effect.

Almost a quarter of a million men and women were on strike in Liverpool

by 13 August and a strike committee was now virtually running the city,

deciding which vehicles could use the streets and who might and might not

work. It looked very much like a parallel government along the line of the

soviets which emerged during the Russian Revolution a few years later, and

when a crowd of 80,000 men gathered and began moving towards the centre

of the city, it was felt that firm action was needed. A large body of police

was formed to break up the march and they were backed by cavalry. After

the Riot Act had been read by a magistrate, anybody who remained on the

streets was defying the law and force could legitimately be used to disperse

any gathering. The mounted troops then attempted to clear the streets, with

disastrous consequences.

 

Before the reading of the Riot Act, the demonstration had been peaceful,

if a little boisterous. When the police moved in and began to push people

back and the cavalry began riding into groups of strikers, violence erupted.

Almost 200 strikers were hospitalized with injuries caused by the heavyhanded

tactics used against them by the troops and police. Windows were

smashed, fires started and makeshift barricades set up to block the streets.

A hundred or so men and a few women were arrested and taken to court the

following day on charges ranging from obstruction to assaulting the police.

The stage was now set for the final act of the tragedy.

 

The Golden Age of Edwardian Britain 1901–1914 - photo 18
The Golden Age of Edwardian Britain

The Golden Age of Edwardian Britain

A warship, the cruiser HMS Antrim, had been ordered to Liverpool and

was anchored in the Mersey. Armed sailors landed and took control of the

docks, while heavily-armed troops patrolled the streets in a bid to deter further

gatherings of strikers. Police in armoured cars were also in evidence.

Illustration 16 shows a line of troops, behind which is a police armoured

car. This is not the usual sort of thing which we think of when Edwardian

Britain is mentioned! The stage was set for the final act of the tragedy.

The members of the crowd who had been arrested appeared in court on

15 August and were, almost without exception, either sentenced immediately

to prison or remanded in custody to face trial at a later date on more

serious charges. The vans carrying the prisoners to Walton Prison had been

assigned a guard of thirty hussars, mounted soldiers carrying rifles. The

relatives and friends of the men being taken off to prison had formed a sizable

and hostile crowd in the streets between the court and the prison and

were blocking the way forward for the prison vans. Then, bottles and stones

began to be thrown at the cavalry escort. It was unclear if this was an attempt

to rescue the prisoners by breaking open the vans, but whatever the intention,

it could have come as little or no surprise when things grew very ugly.

The vans and their military escort were now hemmed in on all sides and

unable to move forward or back. Some of the men in the crowd now darted

forward and grabbed at the bridles of the soldiers’ horses, perhaps trying to

move them away from the vans. At this point, the order was given to open

fire and the hussars levelled their rifles at the crowd and began shooting.

Five men were hit by the hail of fire, two of whom died almost at once. John

Sutcliff was shot twice in the head. He and Michael Prendegast, the other

fatality, were both in their twenties. The sudden, shocking death of these

two young men, both were in their twenties, seemed to bring the city of

Liverpool to its senses. Before the railway strike ended though, there was to

be even more bloodshed elsewhere in the country.

To be continued…

«Myths That Shaped Our History From Magna Carta to the Battle of Britain»

Simon Webb

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