The Maya Calendar
In winter 2011-2012 scientific news was filled with information that astronomical Maya tables were decoded and also the calendar of this ancient civilization was resumed. And one of its cycles should be finished on the 21st of December in 2012 but why was it decided and why didn’t it happen?
There are many reasons why these disappeared Indians from Central America are interested by all over the world. Specialists from US, Europe, Asia and Africa gather at the conferences devoted to Maya. Many books are written, Internet resources are full with information, dozens of films are shoot about Maya. Even in Hollywood Mel Gibson made a film ” Apocalipto” that was seen by millions of people in many different countries. So who are they? Why do they arouse such interest?
The time of prosperity of Maya city-states are III-IX centuries A.D. They were located on the territory of modern Mexican states Chiapas, Tabasco, Campeche and of Guatemala Peten, Belize, in the south of Yucatan and in the north of Honduras.
Ruins of Palenque
Maya possessed incredibly difficult and at the same time logical calendar. Maya hieroglyphs confounded generations of researchers-linguists and their pyramids in height and greatness don’t yield pyramids of Ancient Egypt. Maya invented “zero” and though Egyptian, Greek and Roman mathematicians didn’t think about it.
In some time, a German mathematician Joachim Ritshtayg decoded so called” The Dresden Codex” and discovered that one of the ancient Maya cities with some golden plates were situated at the bottom of lake Izabal in Guatemala.
“The Dresden Codex” is one of saved books of ancient Maya. Studying the codex, a mathematician discovered that Atlan city was destroyed because of strong earthquakes on the 30th of October in 666 A.D. Nowadays, ruins of Atlan are in the waters of lake Izabal in Guatemala. Besides, it was found that there were 2156 golden plates on which ancient Maya wrote their knowledge.
The Dresden Codex is one of the ancient books of Maya
This treasure is 8 tons by weight and costs 210 million euros. As some scientists claim, Maya were not familiar with metals. They didn’t have such a word as “gold” in their language. But there were words “ta’k’in”( excrements of the Sun) and “ta’uh”(excrements of the Moon).
One of the parts of the big Mayan calendar is a calendar of Atlan city. It is the oldest calendar in the world. Maya believed that this calendar is of all humanity. Atlan was a capital. Lake Izabal, in which the city is hidden, is connected with ocean. Oil company “Shell” explored the lake and looked for oil. American fleet with the help of radars and metal detectors explored the lake also before oil company. And they found buried buildings. And our expedition found a trunk with golden plates.
Who were atlans? They were first inhabitants of America. Nowadays, we call them as “the Olmecs”, ” The Aztecs” and “the Maya”. Their legends say: ” They came to Yucatan from the north, from the island on the lake, which “Marine God” created.
Maya watched stars and sun and based on this observations, they created the calendar. And it is more older and more exact than modern European one. Maya wrote about their history but not about the future. Now people can see this calendar in Prado museum in Madrid. The calendar shows 21 period of life — from the beginning of Atlan. It counts down phases from 12900 year to 280 year to disappearing of Atlan. The latest phase begins in 1380 and finishes in 1660.
Maya observed stars and created the calendar
Also there was a city Teotihuacan. It is an Aztec word and it means ” the place where people become Gods”. It was a large city and the biggest pyramids are located on its territory. It was one of the biggest city in the world with population of one hundred thousand people. Teotihuacan is a huge archeological complex with prominent architecture such as the Pyramid of the Sun. It is bigger than Coliseum but smaller than the Pyramid of Cheops.
Monuments of Teotihuacan are known all over the world. The Pyramid of the Sun, the Pyramid of the Moon, Quetzalcoatl temple – “feathered God”. When it is an equinox on the 21st of March, it is impossible to come close to the Pyramid of the Sun. According to believes, in this day heaven’s door opens and beneficial energy comes to those who stand on the top of the Pyramid of the Sun. Chakra opens, aura renews, karma improves, wrinkles disappear, bald heads are covered with long hair.
The Pyramid of the Sun
Maya were saving and developing the calendar for a lot of years. Mayan shamanism couldn’t be destroyed even by Latin-American catholicism. Mostly every citizen of the city was a white or a black magician. According to their believes, Gods and people had to take care of each other. Gods gave life, wealth, health and happiness to people and people gave them their energy and blood. Besides, Gods could become older and die. It is like a fact of palaolentology, isn’t it? It could be that Mayan ancestors met the aliens , got some knowledge with some prohibitions from them. The Maya believed that wounds on human body served as the way of supernatural powers and ancestors to the world of humans. Besides, the most powerful blood was from tongue, ears and genitals. The ceremonies of bloodletting took important part in the Mayan society. They were held at any important event: consecration of the new buildings, the beginning or the ending of war, the birth of the heir.
When we can see the picture of the Mayan market, we can see that every merchant was written like “the tobacconist”, “the breadmaker” , “the potter”. It is incredible but modern people don’t even think that every day they use the gifts from Maya. Did you smoke? Tobacco was cultivated by Maya first time. Did you drink vodka with pepper? Hot pepper was given by Maya. Did you eat tomatoes? Tomatoes were grown by Maya. Also they found pumpkin and beans. And now just imagine that you will not have all of these things!
Maya opened different products for the modern world
The Maya wrote their books on the paper which they made from fibre of plants looks like agave. If you can look at it, you can see bagging but not paper. The pages of the book writers covered with thin layer of daub and used natural paints. The Dresden codex is a manuscript of XI-XII centuries which is the list from the earlier text. From all codexes, this one is considered to be more authentic and ancient. It contains a lot of lines and painted illustrations.
Ancient Maya didn’t have such a notion as “the end of the world”. But they were sure if they didn’t feed the Sun with fresh human blood then it would not have powers to raise next day. And if there is no Sun – there is no world. In this sense the end of the world postponed every time for unknown period, excruciating themselves and their captives. Many proves of human sacrifices can be found in Palenque- it is the most known city of Maya.
Maya respected the God of the Sun and believed if they sacrificed hearts, they would give God the possibility to feed on human power. And due to this, the Sun will shine forever. So that, the date 21.12.2012 is just a reminding that in this day 13th Baktun finishes. There is so called monument № 6, it is a back of the trone. It was written there:” The Czar who did that in that time before the last day of the 13th Baktun”. And then it will start a new calculation of time. In Mayan city Palenque there is an inscription of the date 4772 year. So, the date of the 13th Baktun is not the last day in Maya calendar. This date says only about the ending of epoch of ” the Third Sun” and the beginning of the epoch of ” the Fourth Sun” – it is the one in which we live nowadays. For more understanding, there must be an explanation. Mayan epoch is consisted of 13th Baktuns. 1 Baktun is consisted of 144 thousand days so 13th Baktuns is about 5125 days. So, the current Baktun started on the 21st of December 2012.
21.12.2012 is like a round number. Or it is like a beginning of something new. People like to start a new life from Monday and try something new, go to gym or give up smoking or drinking alcohol. So, as you see, this date was the beginning of new time and people shouldn’t be afraid of something new. That is why Maya calendar made people think that life will finish but life is going on with its bright colors.
“The Maya treasure and the end of the world” Konstantin Stogniy