Wood Carving. Amazing Wood Carving Techniques
Highly carved details reflect the centuries-old traditions of wood carving, as well as the rich history of formation and development, which enable us to know the true value of magnificence. At all times, wood carving in the interiors was considered a great luxury. Handmade furniture with carved elements could only be afforded by people of high status. And until today, wood carving remains the most popular type of manual wood processing. Thanks to the investment of unusually unique craftsmanship and work, furniture with carved elements is at the top of popularity among connoisseurs of refined and sophisticated interiors.
Wood carving is a very ancient and most common type of artistic and decorative wood trim. The principle of decoration with carving is widely used to decorate a variety of interior parts, creating pilasters, arches, friezes, panels. Such carvings are decorated with boxes, chess, frames of paintings, mirrors, as well as windows, doors, cabinets and many other items of interior. With the help of such elements living space becomes expressive, regardless of the style of the interior. Masterfully made carving in the form of whimsical and unusual patterns and ornaments, transforms any interior and exalts the taste of its owner, who cannot but enjoy the amazing charm and the fact of owning an exceptionally elegant thing.
Natural solid wood has incredible possibilities in decorating and making object decoration, such as graphic, artistic and sculptural techniques. Furniture items made using the technique of wood carving are able to give life and decorate the space around.
Wood carving is the oldest art form, which is a very important bearer of the cultural history of many nations. Wood is a beautiful and affordable material that is relatively easy to process and is amenable to change. As at all times, the carver’s handwork remained an incomparable art form, whose style could not be faked or replicated. Works sometimes reach such a level of craftsmanship that the products seem to be exquisite lace. This type of thread is called multi-layered.
Technology and types of wood carving directly depend on the wood type. Sculptural and relief wood carving has always been done with softer varieties such as linden or birch. Small parts required types of wood such as maple, beech, or pear. But special attention should be paid to furniture art carving. So that the interior items looked luxurious and pleased the owners for a long time, the furniture should be made of more valuable wood species, which are covered with paint and transparent varnishes. The walnut, Karelian birch and mahogany make magnificent furniture sets, which to this day are an adornment of many museums.
Art wood carving is a limitless scope for human fantasy and strict classification, as such, no. But nevertheless masters distinguish several types of wood processing, such as relief, plane-relief, pro-carved.
First of all, in those days there was no more accessible material, while so malleable and fertile. Any decoration in ancient times had a practical character: as they say, they planed plates for children, and showed their creative beginnings. However, not only in small things (as we now say, “in accessories”) one could find carved decor. Over time, openwork wood became an integral part of both houses and even ship building. In a word, wood carving is the most ancient type of “haute couture” decor, that is, manual and unique.
Modern masters often uses not only mechanical tools (chisels, knives, klepiki, cranberries, geismus, chisels), but also electric tools (electric bench with various nozzles, electric scraper, jigsaws).
Novice carvers should pay attention to the simplest sets of hand tools: its elements can be purchased individually (from about 300 rubles per item) or choose a ready-made set (from 1500 rubles in the minimum configuration). The cost of professional kits for carving, which include at least 10 items, exceeds 20,000 rubles. For fans of progress, an electric carved instrument is recommended.
In the old days, many of the wood carving products served as talismans, they were believed and worshiped in them. And, by the way, to make something really worthwhile from a log, you need to apply a lot of strength. With the help of a lathe you can make any woodwork. To get to work on a lathe, the first thing to do is to mark the center on the workpiece in order to evenly attach the log, and then to get the product of the desired shape.
The lathe is designed for processing workpieces of various materials, in our case – wood. After turning the machine into operation with a chisel (chisel, carpentry tool), the master carefully gives the necessary shape to the workpiece. The bits are very sharp, they should calmly shave the hair, for example, on the arm. If the instrument is dulled, the desired result will be difficult to achieve, and the level of security will be reduced. One wrong move – and you can be left without fingers. And it’s not a joke! In addition, the workpiece will be spoiled.
After machining on a lathe, the billet is sent to the master of manual wood carving of small parts. He polishes it, decorates, varnishes, dries … It can take several days of hard work to make one small box. The master turns on the fantasy and decorates his product as he sees fit. Even single-type drawings have differences. Therefore, each product is considered unique and inimitable. The themes and plots for the embodiment in a tree are taken by the carver, observing nature, whose fantasies are inexhaustible. Of course, there are many different techniques of wood carving and we will tell about them.
Flat thread wood carving
Flat carving is akin to ancient petroglyphs or even primitive patterns on dense coastal sand, characterized by the fact that compositions of varying complexity are cut out (removed) by special techniques and methods from the plane of the wooden blank, the untouched parts of which are thus the background for the thread. Depending on the shape of the grooves and the nature of the pattern, the planar-thread can be geometric or contour.
Geometric carving – one can say is the most ancient type of wood carving. By the nature of the performance, the geometric thread is divided into triangular-grooved and clamped.
Triangular-grooved wood carving
Triangular-grooved wood carving is performed in the form of variational compositions of two, three, and four-sided grooves that make up the surface pattern of geometric shapes – triangles, squares, circles, used mainly in the decoration of household items.
Staple (nail) wood carving
Skoti (nail-shaped) wood carving appeared as a result of the development of the technique of thread and, of course, with the advent of new tools in wood carving. As soon as the semicircular chisels appeared, another kind of grooves appeared – the staple-shaped grooves (“marigolds”), resembling parentheses or the new month, applied by this tool both along and across the layer of fibers. As a result of this updated technique, the rigidity of geometric images somewhat softened, and with this new motifs of ornamentation appeared – scaly foliage, petal flowers, parallel stripes with nail-shaped notches on both sides. Geometric wood carving – triangular-notched in combination with clamped – has provided us with richer examples of carved ornamentation.
The contour wood carving is a linear ornamental or plot drawing on the plane of a wooden blank (household item), made in the form of thin dihedral (wedge-shaped) slits applied to the surface along the contour of the design using cutters and various chisels. In contrast to the geometric, in the contour thread are used mainly figurative motifs: leaves, flowers, figurines of animals, birds, humans, architectural motifs, objects, furnishings and household items. Through the contour thread depicts the whole plot scenes from urban and rural life. The image made by contour wood carving thread looks like an engraved pattern: its lines are sharp, hard, there is almost no play of light and shade. Contour wood carving is most often used in combination with other types of wood carving – geometric plane-relief, as well as with painting. Often, threads are used to make decorative panels.
Flat wood carving
The flat-relief carving has several varieties: carving with coiled contours (coarse or “obstructed”), carving with a cushioned background, carving with a selected (selected) background, openwork invoice and with a removed background. A common feature for all types of this thread is a low conditional relief located in one plane at the level of the decorated surface. Flat wood carving is a transitional form from contour to relief wood carving.
The hewn thread is performed in the same way as the contour thread – in the form of dihedral grooves along the contour of the pattern, but at the same time, the recesses are cut deeper, and their edges are rounded (sticking). As a rule, from the side of the ornamental forms, the notches both cut and zatyvayut steeper than from the background.
The pillow thread bears its name in the appearance of the background in the samples of this thread, which is rolled up so that it does not remain flat anywhere, but everywhere it looks convex, like whipped pillows. And such a background is called cushioning, and the thread – forged with cushioned background. According to the technique of execution such a thread is not much different from the usual forged.
The thread with the selected background is performed in the same way as the usual beveled one. The forms of the ornament in this thread of wood carving remain flat, but here the edges of the forms in it are coolly stitched. The background in this thread is chosen to a small depth. In this case, the ornament as it lies on a flat plane. The play of chiaroscuro in the swatches of this thread is much richer than in the coiled thread, but not the same as in the relief thread. Therefore, flat relief wood carving is performed mainly on small objects and trimmed with polishing.
The openwork (slit or propyl) bill of wood carving
Although a special type of flat-relief, is a separate section. This thread is made on a wooden layer of any shape, where the elements of the image are interconnected and instead of the background are surrounded by slots. Depending on the surface treatment and its shape, the slotted thread can be represented as a plane-relief, only without a background. If a slotted thread is combined with a geometric one, the impression of airiness of the product is created. It is carried out with the help of stencils or according to the pattern with the help of fillet saw (rather large pattern and forms) or jigsaw (lace thread). If the slotted thread is mounted on the surface of the product, such a thread is called a bill of lading. As a private, but very indicative example of a laid-on slotted thread – a cut-on invoice birch bark. Wood carving is an interesting process.
“House” or “ship” thread
“Home” or “ship” wood carving, the technique and forms of which are typical for wood carving on ships and barges. It vividly illustrates the specific features and possibilities of a flat-relief thread. This is a wood carving with an uncut (deaf) background and a high relief pattern. The ship carvings were decorated with porches, front boards, platbands and shutters of huts. In this case, the thread was painted in bright colors – blue, red, ocher-yellow. The motifs of this wood carving thread were most often floral ornaments, where the leaves curl in steep oncoming spirals and connect them and at the same time disconnect the floral rosettes. Among the leaves and flowers, images of mermaids-beregin, lions, phoenix birds, owls, hares, cats, and often font compositions are often found.
Bulk (high-relief or sculptural) wood carving
Volumetric (high-relief or sculptural) wood carving, both in the nature of the plastic solution of the form and in the technique of execution, is on a par with the sculpture. High-relief wood carving is not so much widespread. It was used for carving of ships, the making of stately palace furniture and architectural details of interiors, iconostasis of churches. An example of such a massive carving is the so-called “hollow” – a figure carved image of the head and upper body of a horse, a deer, a large bird, which was cut from the whole rhizome with an ax and placed on the crest of the roof above the pediment, and earlier on the bow of the ship. It is an old style of wood carving.
Works of arts and crafts depends on the mood, the emotional state of the master. It is not an easy task to make something of wood. Wood carving was very needed work all times and until now its techniques don’t loose their positions. Furniture, different dishes and just wood presents are the desire of many people all over the world.